CATTLE CALL WALL

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GEOLOGY

NEW MEXICO U.S.A

 

The area surrounding the popular rock-climbing location of Cattle Call Wall is the Location of the Valles Caldera. The Valles Caldera is classified as a Supervolcano and is considered dormant with a threat level of moderate according to the USGS. 

 

The Valles Caldera is a volcanic depression that is 12-15 miles in diameter, and 500 to 2,000 ft deep. The surrounding mountains rise to an altitude exceeding 10,000 feet above sea level. The Caldera formed as a result of the collapse of the magma chamber following the eruption, the volcano has had 2 major eruptive episodes 1.7 million years ago and 1.2 million years ago which formed the caldera but the most recent was only 50,000 - 60,000 thousand years ago and was not as violent.   

The Jemez mountains are located within the western margin of the Rio Grande Depression, which is a structurally low area that is part of the valley where the Rio Grande River and its tributaries flow through. The surrounding area around the Jemez caldera is comprised of mostly volcanic rock that is Tertiary and Quaternary in age.

Cattle Call Wall New Mexico Jemez

SOUTH MOUNTAIN RHYOLITE

The cliffs of Cattle Call Wall are comprised of South Mountain Rhyolite which was erupted roughly 521,000 years ago as lava flows. The South Mountain Rhyolite is part of the Tewa Group and is a member of the Valles Rhyolite. 

 

The Valles Rhyolite includes all the Rhyolite members that erupted within the caldera after the collapse, so they are post-caldera Rhyolites.  

The Lava flowed 10 km (6 miles) west from the satellite dome Cerro La Jara, at least 5 eruptive episodes of crystalline Rhyolites associated with pyroclastic sediments have been recorded in the area. 

 

The South Mountain Member fills a paleo-canyon which was filled in during the eruption. Pyroclastic sediment below the lava flows are exposed in road cuts along NM-4.

Cattle Call Wall New Mexico
Cattle Call Wall New Mexico Jemez
Cattle Call Wall New Mexico Jemez
Cattle Call Wall New Mexico Jemez
Cattle Call Wall New Mexico Jemez

REFEreNCES

USGS: Volcano Hazards Program

Valles Caldera - New Mexico

Yellowstone Observatory

USDA: United States Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service

Geology & Minerals: Santa Fe NF, Jemez District, Rhyolite Cliffs 

New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources

(A division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology)

Peter A. Scholle, State Geologist, 2011 Geologic map of the Valles Caldera, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

Fraser Goff, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Jamie N. Gardner,  Steven L. Reneau, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Shari A. Kelley, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Kirt A. Kempter Santa Fe, John R. Lawrence, Lawrence GeoServices Ltd. Albuquerque, New Mexico

Tectonics of the Rio Grande Depression Of Central New Mexico

Vincent C. Kelley

New Mexico Geological Society *Third field Conference *Rio Grande County

Outline of the geology of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

New Mexico Geological Survey

Albuquerque Country, Northrop, S. A.; [ed.], New Mexico Geological Society 12th Annual Fall Field Conference Guidebook, 199 p.

R.A. Bailey, R.L. Smith & C.S, Ross, 1961, pp 139-143 

Stratigraphic Nomenclature Of Volcanic Rocks in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

R. A. Bailey, R. L. Smith, and C. S. Ross

Geological Survey bulletin 1274-P

New Stratigraphic names and revisions in nomenclature of upper Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks in the Jemez Mountains. 

Rhyolites and associated deposits of the Valles-Toledo Caldera Complex

New Mexico Geology, February 2010 Volume 32, Number 1

Jamie N. Gardner, Jemez Springs, New Mexico, Fraser Goff, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Shari Kelley, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Elaine Jacobs, Los Alamos, New Mexico 

New Mexico Geological Society *Third field Conference *Rio Grande County

CRATERS OF THE MOON
IDAHO, U.S.A
CUYAHOGA VALLEY
OHIO, U.S.A
HELL'S HALF ACRE
IDAHO, U.S.A